This guide has everything you need to know about unmanaged dedicated servers‘ maintenance. So if you want to rent a server and manage the server alone, you’re in the right place.

About The Authors

We are a team of server administrators from NoDowntime Domains. NoDowntime Domains Corporation is part of the Abofa Group which provides a broad range of investments in dedicated server hosting, server hosting services, data centers and failover network systems.
We are through our “Unmanaged Dedicated Servers” portal make possible that everyone just rent a real server and starts to be a member of our larger data centers system instantly. We are managing the same servers in our managed server solutions.

However, we wish to offer one layer of service more than usual in the unmanaged dedicated hosting industry and by other unmanaged hosting providers. Our “Unmanaged Dedicated Servers: The Definitive Guide” is a guide for fast learning Linux commands which are frequently used by Linux administrators. The guide covers all essential Linux commands as well as their operations, examples, and explanations. It also includes Linux Helping commands, symbols, shortcut keys, run levels and Vi commands.

You can find on the one place cheap unmanaged dedicated servers and the complete guide how to manage the server on the Linux operating system.

Contents


Chapter 11
Processes Commands

Chapter 12
Account Commands

 

===

Chapter 1 -Linux Operating System

Let’s start with Filesystem… The term “filesystem” has two meanings: First, it means an organized collection of files, stored in some specific set of directories. Second, it means the low-level data structures used to organize files on a hard disk partition or external disk.
Linux filesystem are organized into a logical tree structure formed of directories.

 

The following illustration describes filesystem tree:

/dev

/bin

/lib

/sbin

/boot

/initrd

/etc

/proc

/mnt

/tmp

/var

/opt

/usr

/root

/home

/

 

Explanation:
/bin – Contains basic command line utilities, holds system binaries or programs used to operate the system, holds the commands available to all users.
/boot – Contains the commands and files required for Linux to boot on computer, these include the kernel, boot loaders, and message files defining the text printed on the screen at system boot.
/dev – Contains all devices files used to access the various hardware components on the system. This directory is used for special files which represent devices on the system.
/etc – Contains a set of system configuration files used to manage the system initialization and configuration parameters for networking, service, password and subsystems…
/home – Contains users’ data files. It is the default location for holding the user’s personal configuration and data files.
/lib – Contains program libraries needed by a number of different applications as well as the Linux kernel.
/mnt – Contains the mount point of removable various devices.
/opt – Contains optional files and packages loaded onto the system.
/proc – Contains all kernel-related processes that are currently running.
/root – The home directory of the superuser.
/sbin – Contains system administration commands, which are system binary files.
/tmp – Contains temporary files created by ordinary users.
/usr – Contains programs and data available to all users, it is an enormous directory with many sub-directory and files.
/var –Contains variable data like system logs, print spool files, and lock files.
/initrd – Contains only a file with warning that the fold must not be removed. Otherwise, the Linux system cannot start up.

 

Linux operating system doesn’t function like the one in Windows. The structure of Linux filesystem looks like a tree.
A filesystem is a technique of organizing and managing files from a storage device like hard drive. Filesystem usually consists of various files separated into groups called directories. Directories can contain files or additional sub-directories.

 

Summary

  1. Windows, Mac OS and Linux are the most popular operating systems.
  2. Linux usually works as a server, because of its stability and security’s feature.
  3. Linux is a free charge operating system, its source code (the manufacturing recipe) is open, and anyone can view it.
  4. Nowadays, there are so many various versions of Linux, called distributions.
  5. Filesystem, a Linux operating system, consists of various Linux system files.

 

Chapter 2 – Enter First Commands

We’ll really see the ABC here, the basic survival guide of kits.

 

Linux Command & Parameter
A Linux shell is a command-line interpreter or provides a traditional user interface for the Linux operating system and for Linux-like systems. The shell understands a plenty of Linux commands and its option which changes their action.

The typical syntax of Linux command looks like this:
command   –option   argument
or
command   parameter

(Usually –option argument means parameter)

 

For instance:
Commands look like: ls, cat, pwd, cp, mv, date……
Parameters look like: -a, -l, -s, –all, –help……

 

Example:
ls –a

 

Explanation:
“ls” is a command meaning “list the contents in current directory”.
“-a” is a parameter meaning “all”.

Result: list all contents in current directory.

Linux commands can be run in text interface mode or in a shell terminal window.

 

Command Prompt
The command prompt is a message that prompts you enters a command. The command prompt is shown before each command you type.

 

Example:
username@hostname: ~ $  command parameter
root@hostname:~#  command parameter
user>  command parameter

Explanation:
“username@hostname:~$ ”is a command prompt.
“root@hostname:~#” is a command prompt too.
“user>” is a command prompt as well.

About the “username@hostname:~$ ls”

 

Example:
user2014@user-linux:~$ ls

 

Explanation:
user2014: the first element is your nickname. This is the user name by which you log in your account.
@: This symbol indicates “at”. it is a separator.
user-linux: that’s the name of the computer on which you are working. In my case it is called user-linux, but you can give it any name during installation.
: This symbol does not mean anything special, it is a separator.
~: That’s the folder where you currently locate. You can navigate from folder to folder in the console and it is very useful that you always be reminded where you are before typing each command.
The symbol ~ means that you are at home directory, so-called “home” in Linux is equivalent to the “My Documents” folder on Windows. We will study in detail the operation of the files in Linux next chapter.
$: This symbol is very important; it shows your authorization level on the machine.
ls: ls is a command. (Show the contents of current directory).

 

More detail about $
$: Means you are currently working as a user in “normal” account with limited rights (The user in “normal” account cannot change the most important system files). My account user2014 is a normal account with limited rights;
As you can see, once you speak the same language as the command prompt, you will understand what it means!

 

At this moment, the Linux machine seems to say hallo to you:
“Welcome, you are user2014 at user-linux machine. You are currently at home directory in normal account and have limited user rights. You are using a command “ls” to list the contents in current directory.”

About the “root@hostname:~#whoami”

 

Example:
root@user-linux:~# whoami

 

Explanation:
root: means your work as a super user in “root” account.
@: This symbol indicates “at”. it is a separator.
user-linux: that’s the name of the computer on which you are working. In my case it is called user-linux, but you can give it any name during installation.
: This symbol does not mean anything special, it is a separator.
~: That’s the folder where you currently locate. You can navigate from folder to folder in the console and it is very useful that you always be reminded where you are before typing each command.
The symbol ~ means that you are at home directory, so-called “home” in Linux is equivalent to the “My Documents” folder on Windows. We will study in detail the operation of the files in Linux next chapter.
#: means you are working as a super user in “root” account.
Whoami: whoami is a command. (Show the current user name).

 

More detail about #
#: Means you are working as a super user in “root” account. The “root” is the master who has the almighty right to do everything to other user accounts on his computer(even to destroy it!). We’ll see how “root” works in detail later;

 

At this moment, the Linux machine seems to say hallo to you:
“Welcome, you are a super user at user-linux machine. You are currently at home directory in root account and have super user rights. You are using a command “whoami” to show the current user name.”

About “user>pwd”

 

Example:
user> pwd

 

Explanation:
user>: is a customized command prompt.
pwd: pwd is a command. (Print working directory).

You can customize the command prompt like user>. Of course after you are familiar with most Linux command programming, you will be able to customize the shell prompt.

 

At this moment, the Linux machine seems to say hallo to you:
“Welcome, you are a user at user-linux machine. You are using a customized command prompt. You are currently at home directory and have limited user rights. You are using the “pwd” command to print working directory.”

The command prompt can be configurable entirely. You can shorten it if you find it is too long, or lengthen it if it does not show enough information. You can theoretically put everything informative you want in the prompt, such as the current time.

 

About Linux Commands
The typical syntax of sell command looks like this:
command   –option   argument
or
command   parameter

Let’s see some example of Linux commands.

 

Example:
Type “date” and press the Enter key.
user2014 @ user-linux: ~ $ date
Monday, September 20, 2010, 3:39:51 p.m. (UTC-0200)

 

Explanation:
The first line contains the command prompt and a command I typed. In here, “date” is a command.
The second line is the message that computer responses to this command: I just request the date and time!

 

About Parameters
Parameters are options that are typed after the command. The command and parameters are separated by a space, like this:
user2014 @ user-linux: ~ $ command parameters

The parameters themselves can contain spaces, letters, numbers … and a bit of something, really. There is no a real rule on how the arguments are, but fortunately programmers have adopted a sort of “agreement” so that we can recognize the different types of parameters.

 

Short parameters (one letter)
The short parameters are constituted by a single letter preceded by a dash.

For instance:
-d
-l
-a

 

If we have to give several parameters, you can do it like this:
-d -a -U -h
Or shorter:
-daUh

Note: A short parameter in different command has different meanings.

 

Example:
ls -t  (-t means “list by timestamps”.)
eject -t  (-t means “tray close”.)
chfn -f  (-f means ”change information by finger name”)
cut -f (-f means “cut text by a field number”)
ps -f (-f means “show process status in full information”)

 

BEWARE! Parameters are case sensitive (upper / lower case). If you type -u, which has generally not the same sense as –U.

Let us have a test with the ls command, and follow by the parameter “-a”. (-a means “all”):

 

Example:
user2014@user-linux: ~ $ ls -a.
.gconfd .mozilla-thunderbird .. gimp-2.2 .nautilus .bash_history .gksu.lock .profile .bash_logout .gnome .recently-used .bashrc .gnome2 .recently-used.xbel .config .gnome2_private .ssh Desktop .gstreamer- .sudo_as_admin_successful .dmrc .gtkrc 0.10-1.2-gnome2 .themes .esd_auth .ICEauthority .thumbnails .evolution .icons .Trash Examples .lesshst tutorials .face .local .update-manager-core .fontconfig .macromedia .update-notifier .gaim. metacity .Xauthority .gconf .mozilla .xsession-errors

The screen displays all files of current directory, even hidden files. Normally, the home directory contains a good bunch of hidden files, which are usually the programs of configuration files.

 

Long parameters (severalletters)
The long parameters consist of several letters preceded by two dashes like this:
–long parameter

For instance: –all
–all is a long parameter, meaning all contents or all things.

For instance: –version
–version is a long parameter, meaning the version of the command.

For instance: –help
–help is a long parameter, meaning get help for current command.

If you want to put several feature parameters together, they will be added a space between each one:
Command –long parametre1 –long parametre2

You can also combine the long and short parameters in this way:
Command -daUh –All

Note that some parameters do not offer a choice between a short version and a long version.

Let’s test the ls command with the –all parameter, which means “all things”:

 

Example:
user2014@user-linux: ~ $ ls –all.
.gconfd .mozilla-thunderbird .. gimp-2.2 .nautilus .bash_history .gksu.lock .profile .bash_logout .gnome .recently-used .bashrc .gnome2 .recently-used.xbel .config .gnome2_private .ssh Desktop .gstreamer- .sudo_as_admin_successful .dmrc .gtkrc 0.10-1.2-gnome2 .themes .esd_auth .ICEauthority .thumbnails .evolution .icons .Trash Examples .lesshst tutorials .face .local .update-manager-core .fontconfig .macromedia .update-notifier .gaim. metacity .Xauthority .gconf .mozilla .xsession-errors

As you can see, –all and -a are a synonym, which explains that a command offers two ways to use a parameter: a short version and a long version.

 

Commands and Parameters Examples
OK! Let’s have a further look about the commands and their parameters.

su –l : switch user

Example:
user> su –l
(su: going to login as the root super user,
-l: is a parameter meaning “login”)

ls –l : list long contents

Example:
user>ls –l
(ls: shows the contents of current directory.
–l: is a parameter meaning “long list include access permissions, ownership and date & time.”)

ls –a : list all contents

Example:
user>ls –a
(ls: shows the contents of current directory.
–a: is a parameter meaning “all contents” including hidden files.)

rm –ri : remove a directory and its contents

Example:
user>rm –ri  NonEmptyDir
(rm: removes a file or a directory.
–ri: is a parameter meaning remove a non-empty directory and its contents.
NonEmptyDir is a directory name.)

w –s : show current process for each user

Example:
user>w -s
(w: shows the shell working processes.
–s: is a parameter meaning “summary ”)

usermod –l : modify an existing user account.

Example:
user>usermod –l oldname newname
(usermod: modify an existing user account.
–l: is a parameter meaning “login name change”)

 

Virtual Console
Virtual Console means an interface where the input device and the output device designed to enable you to interact with your system.
Linux has 7 virtual consoles, you can switch them using Ctrl+Alt+F1through F7.
Ctrl+Alt+F1~F6:  switch virtual console 1~ virtual console 6
Ctrl+Alt+F7: enter graphical desktop, which is default virtual console.

 

Summary:

  1. When user is a normal user, use: username@hostname:~$ command  parameter
  2. When user is a super user, use: root@hostname:~#  command  parameter
  3. When the shell prompt has been customized, use: User> command parameter
  4. Linux command: ls, pwd, su, whoami, loginname, rm, exit…
  5. Command parameter: -a, -ri, -l,–all, –help…
  6. Virtual Console: let you have several interface shell sessions active at the same time.

 

Chapter 3 – Super User Commands

su: switch a normal user into a root super user
loginname: shows the login name
exit: exit the shell.
whoami: shows the current user name
hostname: shows the current host name
sudo: allows a user with proper permissions to execute a command as another user, such as the superuser

su: switch a normal user into a root super user

Example:
user2014@user-linux:~$ su –l
(su: switch a normal user into a root super user.
–l: enter root password and login.
Note: After login as a super user, the $ will become #.)

loginname: shows the login name

Example:
root@user-linux: ~ # loginname
(loginname:  shows the login name, the output is “root”.
Note: After login as a super user, the $ becomes #.)

exit: exit the shell

Example:
root@user-linux:~# exit
(exit: exit the shell. In here: exit the super user mode, and enter the normal user mode.
Note: After exit super user, the # will become $.)

whoami: shows the current user name

Example:
user2014@user-linux: ~ $ whoami
(whoami: shows the current user name, the output is “user2014”)

hostname: shows the current host name

Example:
user2014@user-linux: ~ $ hostname
(hostname: shows the current host name, the output is “user-linux”)

sudo: allows a user with proper permissions to execute a command as another user, such as the superuser

Example:
root> sudo -u andy ls /home/mydir
(listthe contents of the /home/mydir directory as user andy.
-u: specify a user)

root> sudo –v
(-v: refresh the authentication timeout, the next sudo command will not require a password.)

root> sudo -k
(-k: expire the authentication timeout, the next sudo command will require a password.)

 

Summary:

  1. su: switch a normal user into a root super user
  2. loginname:  shows the login name
  3. exit: exit the shell.
  4. whoami: shows the current user name
  5. hostname: shows the current host name
  6. sudo: allows a user with proper permissions to execute a command as another user, such as the superuser

 

Chapter 4 – Navigating At Commands

pwd: print working directory.
cd dir: change directory.
cd~ change directory to home directory.
cd.. change directory to a parental directory.
type: determine a command type.

pwd: print working directory.

Example:
user> pwd
(pwd: print working directory, the output is your current working directory.)

cd dir: change directory

Example:
user> cd mydir
(cd: change directory to mydir, the output is mydir.)

cd~ change directory to home directory.

Example:
user> cd ~
(cd~ change directory to home directory, the output is home directory.)

cd.. change directory to a parental directory.

Example:
user> cd ..
(cd.. change directory to a parental directory, the output is a parental directory.)

type: determine a command type

Example:
user> type pwd
(output: pwd is a shell builtin. )

 

Summary:

  1. pwd: print working directory.
  2. cd: change directory.
  3. cd~ change directory to home directory.
  4. cd.. change directory to a parental directory.
  5. type: determine a command type.

 

Chapter 5 – File Operation Commands

cp: copy a file
mv: move a file
mv: rename a file
rm: remove a file
rm –ri: remove a non-empty directory
vi: open vi editor and edit a file
find: look for a file
wc: show word count of a file
file: describe the type of a file
ln: create a link between two files
ln -s: create a symbolic link to a file
readlink: show the target of a symbolic link
lpr: sent a file to printer
lpq: display the print queue.

cp: copy a file

Example:
user> cp myfile /dir1
(cp: copy myfile to /dir1directory.)

mv: move a file

Example:
user> mv myfile /dir2
(mv: move myfile to dir2 directory.)

mv: rename a file

Example:
user> mv myfile1 myfile2
(mv: rename myfiel1 as myfile2.)

rm: remove a file

Example:
user> rm myfile
(rm: remove myfile.)

rm –ri: remove a non-empty directory

Example:
user> rm –ri NonEmptyDir
(rm: remove a directory named NonEmptyDir.
-ri: remove a directory containing contents.)

vi: open vi editor and edit a file

Example:
user> vi myfile.txt
(vi: open vi editor and edit myfile.txt.)

find: look for a file

Example:
user> find directory –type f –name  myfile.txt -print
(find: look for a file.
-type f: specify a file
-name: specify a filename
-print: print)

wc: show word count of a file

Example:
user> wc myfile.txt
(wc: show word count of myfile.txt.)

file: describe the type of a file

Example:
user> file myfile.txt
(file: describe the type of myfile.txt.)

ln: create a link to a file

Example:
user> ln dir1/file1.txt  dir2/file2.txt
(ln: create a link between file1 and file2)

ln -s: create a symbolic link between two files

Example:
user> ln –s dir1/file1.txt  dir2/file2.txt
(ln-s: create a symbolic link between file1 and file2)
(-s: a symbolic link allows a given file to appear in many places or under many names at once. For instance, symbolic links can link to directories. )

readlink: show the target of a symbolic link

Example:
user> readlink  dir2/file2.txt
(the output :  dir1/file1.txt)

lpr: sent a file to printer

Example:
user> lpr myfile.txt
(lpr: sent myfile.txt to printer.)

lpq: display the print queue.

Example:
user> lpq
(lpq: display the print queue.)

 

Summary:

  1. cp: copy a file
  2. mv: move a file
  3. mv: rename a file
  4. rm: remove a file
  5. rm –ri: remove a non-empty directory
  6. vi: open vi editor and edit a file
  7. find: look for a file
  8. wc: show word count of a file
  9. file: describe the type of a file
  10. ln: create a link between two files
  11. ln -s: create a symbolic link to a file
  12. readlink: show the target of a symbolic link
  13. lpr: sent a file to printer
  14. lpq: display the print queue.

 

Chapter 6 – Viewing File Commands

cat: show contents of a file
cat | less: display a file contents page by page
cat | more: display a file contents screen by screen
head: show the front part contents of a file
tail: show the last part contents of a file
aspell: spelling check for a file
cut: show the specified column of a text file
paste: merge two files contents and display
sort: show lines of text sorted alphabetically
stat: display the attributes of a file or directory
wc: display word count in a file
file: test the file type
touch: create a file or change file timestamp
nl: show numbers for each line of a file
vi: edit or create a text file with vi editor
tr: transform text in a file
tee: print standard output, write to a file

cat: show contents of a file

Example:
user> cat myfile.txt
(cat: show contents of myfile.txt.)

cat | less: display a file contents page by page

Example:
user> cat myfile.txt | less
(cat: show contents of myfile.txt.
| : redirect the output to another command
less: display myfile.txt contents page by page)

cat | more: display a file contents screen by screen

Example:
user> cat myfile.txt | more
(cat: show contents of myfile.txt.
| : redirect the output to another command
more: display myfile.txt contents screen by screen)

head: show the front part contents of a file

Example:
user> head myfile.txt
(head: show the front part contents of myfile.txt.)

tail: show the last part contents of a file

Example:
user> tail myfile.txt
(tail: show the last part contents of myfile.txt.)

aspell: spelling check for a file

Example:
user> aspell –c myfile.txt
(aspell: spelling check for myfile.txt.
-c: check)

cut: show the specified column of a text file

Example:
user> cut –f2  myfile.txt
(cut: show the specified column of myfile.txt.
-f2: specify the second column)

paste: merge two files contents and display

Example:
user> paste myfile1.txt  myfile2.txt
(paste: merge two files contents and display)

sort: show lines of text sorted alphabetically

Example:
user> sort myfile.txt
(sort: show lines of text sorted alphabetically.)

stat: display the attributes of a file or directory

Example:
root> stat myfile.txt
(stat: show file name, modify date, change time etc.)

wc: display word count in a file

Example:
root> wc myfile.txt
(wc: show the number of lines, words, bytes in a file)

file: test the file type

Example:
root> file myfile.txt
(output:  myfile.txt  ASCII text)

touch: create a file or change file timestamp

Example:
root> touch myfile.txt
(touch: create a file named myfile.txt)

nl: show numbers for each line of a file

Example:
root> nl myfile.txt
(output:
……
023  sld slwflflf gjo4ijg gj4jf9ej
024  wz wg tjletj geg4t4y
025  sjflew gjlgnu4g jgu675h dk9fh fmj6ju
026  jf5hjd fjtjfj  d8gj1nfj,nuigrr ? rit
……)

vi: edit or create a text file with vi editor

Example:
root> vi myfile.txt
(vi: open myfile.txt with vi editor)

tr: transform text in a file

Example:
root> echo apple | tr “apple” “banana”
(output: banana)

tee: print standard output, write to a file

Example:
Root> sort file1.txt | tee file2.txt
(sort file1.txt and write to file2.txt)

 

Summary

  1. cat: show contents of a file
  2. cat | less: display a file contents page by page
  3. cat | more: display a file contents screen by screen
  4. head: show the front part contents of a file
  5. tail: show the last part contents of a file
  6. aspell: spelling check for a file
  7. cut: show the specified column of a text file
  8. paste: merge two files contents and display
  9. sort: show lines of text sorted alphabetically
  10. stat: display the attributes of a file or directory
  11. wc: display word count in a file
  12. file: test the file type
  13. touch: create a file or change file timestamp
  14. nl: show numbers for each line of a file
  15. vi: edit or create a text file with vi editor
  16. tr: transform text in a file
  17. tee: print standard output, write to a file

 

Chapter 7 – Comparing File Commands

diff: show differences between two files
cmp: compare two files byte by byte
comm: compare two files line by line
md5sum: create a md5 checksum number
cksum: create a crc number

diff: show differences between two files

Example:
user> diff myfile1.txt  myfile2.txt
(diff: show differences between two files.)

cmp: compare two files byte by byte

Example:
user> cmp myfile1.txt  myfile2.txt
(cmp: compare two files byte by byte.)

comm: compare two files line by line

Example:
user> comm myfile1.txt  myfile2.txt
(comm: compare two files line by line.)

md5sum: create a md5 checksum number

Example:
user> md5sum  myfile1.txt
(output:  f7tkgu5orj1fjt8kelc2os95nd57jf8r  myfile1.txt.)

cksum: create a crc number

Example:
user> chsum  myfile2.txt
(output: 4658791048  19  myfile2.txt.)

 

Summary

  1. diff: show differences between two files
  2. cmp: compare two files byte by byte
  3. comm: compare two files line by line
  4. md5sum: create a md5 checksum number
  5. cksum: create a crc number

 

Chapter 8 – Matching Text Commands

grep: show all lines that contain a specified string
egrep: show all lines that contain a specified string
uniq: show unique lines in a file
find: locate a file in specified directory
look: show words matching a given prefix

grep: show all lines that contain a specified string

Example:
user> grep  good  myfile.txt
(grep: show all lines that contain “good” string.)

egrep: show all lines that contain a specified string

Example:
user> egrep  excellent  myfile.txt
(egrep: show all lines that contain “excellent” string.)

uniq: show unique lines in a file

Example:
user> uniq myfile.txt
(uniq: show unique lines in myfile.txt.)

find: locate a file in specified directory

Example:
user> find /mydir –type f myfile.txt -print
(find: locate a file in a directory.
-type f: specify a file
-print: print)

look: show words matching a given prefix

Example:
User> look ab
(output: aba, abb, abc, abd…)

 

Summary

  1. grep: show all lines that contain a specified string
  2. egrep: show all lines that contain a specified string
  3. uniq: show unique lines in a file
  4. find: locate a file in specified directory
  5. look: show words matching a given prefix

 

Chapter 9 – Directory Commands

mkdir: make a new directory
rmdir: remove a empty directory
basename: display the last part of a file path
dirname: show the directory path only

mkdir: make a new directory

Example:
user> mkdir mydir
(mkdir: make a new directory)

rmdir: remove a empty directory

Example:
user> rmdir mydir
(rmdir: remove a empty directory)

basename: display the last part of a file path

Example:
user> basename /home/foo/usr/file.txt
(output:  file.txt)

dirname: show the directory path only

Example:
User>dirname  /foo/bar/baz/myfile.txt
(output:  /foo/bar/baz)

 

Summary

  1. mkdir: make a new directory
  2. rmdir: remove a empty directory
  3. basename: display the last part of a file path
  4. dirname: show the directory path only

 

Chapter 10 – Un/Compress Commands

zip: compress a file to zip format
unzip:  uncompress a file from zip format
gzip: compress files to gzip format
gunzip: uncompress files from gzip format
bzip2: compress files to bz2 format
bunzip2: uncompress files from bz2 format

zip: compress a file to zip format

Example:
user> zip myfile.txt
(zip: compress myfile.txt to zip format.)

unzip: uncompress a file from zip format

Example:
user> unzip myfile.zip
(unzip: uncompress myfile.zip.)

gzip: compress files to gzip format

Example:
user> gzip myfile.txt
(gzip: compress a file to gzip format)

gunzip: uncompress a file from gzip format

Example:
user> gzip myfile.txt.gz
(gunzip: uncompress myfile.txt.gz)

bzip2: compress files to bz2 format

Example:
user> bzip2 myfile.txt.
(bzip2: compress myfile to bz2 format)

bunzip2: uncompress files from bz2 format

Example:
user> bunzip2 myfile.txt.bz2
(bunzip2: uncompress myfile from bz2 format)

 

Summary

  1. zip: compress a file to zip format
  2. unzip:  uncompress a file from zip format
  3. gzip: compress files to gzip format
  4. gunzip: uncompress files from gzip format
  5. bzip2: compress files to bz2 format
  6. bunzip2: uncompress files from bz2 format

 

Chapter 11 – Processes Commands

ps: show the current processes of user
kill: kill a process by process id
w: show all current working process.
df: show disk usage of file system
uptime: show system uptime
top: view the top active process or a specified process.

ps: show the current processes of user

Example:
root> ps –u username
(ps: show the current processes of a user.
-u: specify a user name)

kill: kill a process by process id

Example:
root> kill 6270
(kill: kill  a process by process id
6270: a process id.)

w: show all current working process

Example:
root> w -s
(w: show all current working process.
-s: show summary of process.)

df: show disk usage of file system

Example:
root> df -h
(df: show disk usage of file system.
-h: make the output more understandable)

uptime: show system uptime

Example:
root> uptime
(uptime: show system uptime.)

top: view the top active or specified process

Example:
root> top -p pid
(top: show a process by pid)
(-p:display specified process by pid)
(pid: process id)

 

Summary

  1. ps: show the current processes of user
  2. kill: kill a process by process id
  3. w: show all current working process.
  4. df: show disk usage of file system
  5. uptime: show system uptime
  6. top: view the top active process or a specified process.

 

Chapter 12 – Account Commands

useradd: add a new user account
usermod: modify an existing user account
userdel: delete an existing user account
passwd: set a user account password
chfn: change personal finger information
finger: display personal user finger information

useradd: add a new user account

Example:
root> useradd username
(useradd: add a new user account.)

usermod: modify an existing user account

Example:
root> usermod –l oldname  newname
(usermod: modify an existing user account.
-l: modify login name.)

userdel: delete an existing user account

Example:
root> userdel username
(userdel: delete an existing user account.)

passwd: set a user account password

Example:
root> passwd username
(passwd: set a user account password for a user.)

chfn: change personal finger information

Example:
root> chfn username
(chfn: change finger information for a user).

finger: display personal user finger information

Example:
root> finger username
( finger: list the user’s login name, email, domain name, time. etc.)

 

Summary

  1. useradd: add a new user account
  2. usermod: modify an existing user account
  3. userdel: delete an existing user account
  4. passwd: set a user account password
  5. chfn: change personal finger information
  6. finger: display personal user finger information

 

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